Geist: The Sin Eaters
A character’s basic, fundamental capabilities are represented with Attributes, which are the foundation of all the acts that he performs. These traits are classified into three categories: Mental, Physical, and Social.
Mental Attributes suggest how insightful, clever, and determined your character is. They are Intelligence, Wits, and Resolve.
Physical Attributes indicate how strong, graceful, and enduring your character is. They are Strength, Dexterity, and Stamina.
Social Attributes determine how imposing, magnetic, and dignified your character is. They are Presence, Manipulation, and Composure.
When a character performs an action, the Attribute most appropriate to the effort is referenced. If he tries to remember what he read during library research last week, you look to his Intelligence dots. If he tries to jump a chasm, you check his Strength. If he tries to make a good first impression on a group of people, you apply his Presence score.A character’s dots are usually rolled as part of a dice pool. Attributes are sometimes combined and rolled to see if an action can be accomplished, but they are more often combined with Skills. The Storyteller will tell you what Attributes are applicable to a character’s actions, and what rolls you can make. In general, the three classes of Attributes are used based on the circumstances. One of each of the Mental, Physical and Social traits has bearing on a different kind of action.
Power: Intelligence (Mental), Strength (Physical), Presence (Social)
Finesse: Wits (Mental), Dexterity (Physical), Manipulation (Social)
Resistance: Resolve (Mental), Stamina (Physical), Composure (Social)
Power is the degree of effect that your character has on others and his surroundings. The higher his score, the smarter, more potent or more imposing he is. Intelligence, Strength, and Presence therefore apply when your character seeks to force himself on his environment.
Finesse is a measure of your character’s capacity to interact with the world and influence others. The higher his score, the craftier, more delicate and more influential he is. Wits, Dexterity, and Manipulation have bearing when your character tries to anticipate and react to his environment, and to coordinate others.
Resistance indicates how well your character copes with influences from both without and within that might affect him adversely. The higher his score the more staunch, sturdy or dignified he is. Resolve, Stamina, and Composure apply when your character responds to coercion, injury and influence. Resolve tests his ability to resist efforts to direct his mind, Stamina helps him shrug off physical trauma, and Composure helps him recover from horrifying experiences or social tension and still maintain control.
Thus, you don’t usually check Strength when your character is challenged in a social situation, because brute force doesn’t apply where Composure (social recovery) is concerned. Similarly, Dexterity doesn’t typically have bearing when interpreting a foreign language. That act calls upon the power of the mind and is the purview of Intelligence.
The Attributes of ordinary people are rated from 1 to 5. Supernaturals, however, may find themselves able to reach all the way up to 10 dots in an Attribute. All characters automatically start creation with one free dot in each Attribute. These dots are already filled in on the character sheet and do not count toward dot expenditure when making a character.
1 Poor: Unexercised, unpracticed or inept; other kids probably tease a child about his lack of ability in this area.
2 Average: The result of occasional effort or application.
3 Good: Regular practice or effort, or naturally talented; the child has a knack for this, or has worked to improve it.
4 Exceptional: Frequently applied, tested and honed, or naturally gifted; a child is the best in his school at this, whether it’s due to innate talent or lots of hard work and practice
5 Outstanding: The peak of normal human capability. Continuously exercised or naturally blessed; a child is near average adult capacity in this area, and other kids probably tease him about his ability in this area.
Normally, it’s not possible for a character to have zero dots in an Attribute. That suggests the absolute vacancy of any capability in the trait in question. Now, a person could be physically, mentally or socially disabled or crippled. Those conditions are reflected with Flaws, however, not through zero-rated Attributes.
Just about the only instance in which an Attribute can be reduced to zero (and usually temporarily) is by supernatural means. A spell, curse, or affliction is imposed on your character that eliminates all of the dots in his trait. In these cases, no roll can be made at all whenever the Attribute in question would normally be called for. So, if your character is afflicted with total loss of bodily control (zero Dexterity), you make no rolls for any situation that calls for Dexterity in a dice pool, even if he has dots in a pertinent Skill or has access to tools that would be helpful. Your character can’t even hope to aim a gun or direct his movements. In essence, the action fails outright.
When creating your character, you must prioritize his capability with the Attribute categories. His Mental, Physical, and Social traits must be given primary, secondary, and tertiary emphasis. If you want your character to be active and hardy, Physical traits might be primary. If his ability to react to and deal with people is nearly but not quite as important, Social Attributes could be secondary. That leaves Mental traits as tertiary. He’s not the sharpest tack in the box, or life just hasn’t demanded that he exercise his cognitive potential.
You get to allocate five dots among your character’s primary Attributes. You assign four dots among his secondary Attributes. And you get three dots to divvy up among his tertiary traits. The dots available to each category can be distributed among its three Attributes as evenly or unevenly as you like. So, you might decide to apply three dots to your character’s Strength, one to his Dexterity and one to his Stamina. That’s all five of his primary class allocated. Two of your four Social dots might go to each of Manipulation and Composure. And, you might assign one of each of your three Mental dots to Intelligence, Wits, and Resolve.
Remember that the fifth dot in any Attribute costs two of the dots you have to spend at character creation. Each Attribute also gets one free dot automatically before you start assigning anything.
The following is a breakdown of what each Attribute entails and how it may be applied. Some tasks rely on your character’s Attribute dots alone and these traits are rolled or even combined to determine how well he performs certain tasks. Such feats are typically ones any unimpaired person can perform, such as holding one’s breath or lifting objects, and don’t require any special training or expertise. The Attribute tasks detailed here are comprehensive. They’re activities that rely exclusively on inherent talent (Attributes) alone, rather than on the learned capabilities of Skills. It’s therefore not recommended that you invent other Attribute tasks during play; almost all other actions that characters can perform involve a combination of an Attribute and Skill.
The raw power of the mind. Cognitive capacity. The inherent capability to digest, comprehend, and remember information and to learn more. Intelligence is a direct measure of how smart your character is. She may be dull-minded or have narrow-vision. She may be book-smart, or she may simply be able to grasp concepts, interpret situations and solve problems quickly.
Possessed by: Leaders, planners, scholars, theorists, and white-collar employees.
Skill Specialty: Memorizing And Remembering
Dice Pool: Intelligence + Composure
Committing something such as a name or a facial feature to memory can require an Intelligence + Composure roll, as can recalling that information later. The more calm your character is the more likely it is that she retains the knowledge. If the information is familiar to your character or referenced often, no roll is required unless she’s nervous or under pressure (Storyteller’s discretion). If the information is brief or simple, such as a license-plate number, no modifiers may apply. The Storyteller may impose bonuses or penalties under various circumstances. Memorizing or recalling something at one’s leisure offers a 3 ). Extensive information, details studied quickly or distractedly, or unusual or strange facts such as foreign names are harder to remember (-1 to -5). Features witnessed hours ago are easy to recall (+1), while those observed days, weeks or years ago are harder to conjure up (-1 to -5). Storytellers can make memory rolls on players’ behalf so the veracity of information called forth is never certain. Another option is to forgo rolls if a player remembers (or does not remember) the details.
Dramatic Failure: The information is memorized or remembered incorrectly, to be determined by the Storyteller.
Failure: In one ear and out the other, or your character draws a blank.
Success: The details are at your character’s disposal.
Exceptional Success: Your character has access to not only what’s important, but to related information on the topic or details of where and when the facts were memorized.
Suggested Equipment: Book or television show related to the topic (2).
Possible Penalties: Extensive information (-3 to -5), details studied quickly or distractedly (-1 to -2), unusual or strange facts (-1 to -2), items observed days, weeks or years ago (-1 to -5).
The ability to think on one’s feet, under pressure or duress, without letting them see you sweat. Wits also encompasses an eye for detail, the ability to absorb what’s going on in the environment, and to react to events. It might mean recognizing that the temperature in a room slowly drops, that a landscape painting incorporates a disguised human face, or that a trap is about to be sprung. Wits involves the powers of perception and response. Your character may be oblivious, dumbfounded, quick-eyed or wary. During the course of play, you will be called upon frequently to roll dice to see if your character notices something in her vicinity, or that some detail is unusual. The Storyteller can always ask you to roll Wits + Composure to see if your character is aware of her surroundings, but there are other options. Perhaps more indicative of your character’s life experience and training is combining Wits + a relevant Skill to determine if your character spots something amiss. It could be Wits + Survival to realize that a predatory animal lurks nearby in the woods. Or it might be Wits + Academics to notice that the books on a shelf aren’t arranged alphabetically, but by date of publication. Sure, Wits + Composure might accomplish the same result, but if your character has some capability with a Skill that’s more reliable than her Composure alone, the Storyteller might allow you to roll Wits plus that Skill, instead. As a general rule of thumb, the highest of Composure or the Skill is rolled along with Wits. While the stalked character in the example above might be a novice woodsman (Survival 1 ), he could still have decent Composure (say, 3). The latter of the two is rolled because the character’s inherent senses and alertness compensate for his green status in the wilds. Bear in mind that dots in some Skills or under some circumstances simply don’t matter, and Wits + Composure always applies. For example, if a gun lies in the corner of a room, having the Firearms Skill doesn’t help spot it. Anyone who gets a successful Wits + Composure can see it. The Storyteller always has final say on whether a Skill can be combined with Wits to make a perception roll, or if Composure applies.
Possessed by: Athletes, charlatans, criminals, entrepreneurs, lawyers, and tacticians.
Skill Specialty: Perception
Dice Pool: Wits + Composure (or a relevant Skill in place of Composure)
Sometimes subtle or instantaneous actions occur around your character, testing his powers of observation. A shape races by. Someone hides behind nearby bushes. Maybe your character recognizes these events. Maybe he goes oblivious to them. Alternatively, a single unusual phenomenon is in his presence, and he may (or may not) recognize it without trying. Maybe a piece of furniture is out of place in a room or a door is unlocked when it should be locked. The Storyteller typically knows when something unusual or out of place occurs in your character’s vicinity, and may call for a reflexive Wits + Composure roll for your character to recognize it. Such observation almost always occurs without your character intentionally searching or looking (that’s the province of “Investigation,”. Perception rolls simply check to see if your character instinctively notices what’s going on. In many cases, the Storyteller may make perception rolls for you, so that you remain as aware or unaware of what’s going on as your character.
Dramatic Failure: Your character notices something strange or out of place, but it’s not what has actually occurred, or he makes a dangerous assumption about the event. A picture hanging at an odd angle indicates that someone has moved it, but your character assumes that a door has been slammed, shifting the piece of art.
Failure: our character notices nothing amiss or out of place.
Success: Your character recognizes that something has happened. If he wants to learn more, Investigation rolls are called for.
Exceptional Success: Your character not only recognizes when something unusual or quick happens nearby, he sees it all happen and gets a good look. Or he notices a variety of things that are amiss in his surroundings, just by entering the room.
Suggested Equipment: Hopped-up on caffeine (2).
Possible Penalties: Dark (-3), obscuring weather (-1 to -3), subtle detail (-1), obscure detail (-3), distracting circumstances (-1 to -3).
Skill Specialty: Reaction To Surprise
Dice Pool: Wits + Composure
An ambush is about to be launched, a trap is about to be sprung, or your character is about to run into her enemy. She may recognize the threat in time or walk right into it. Roll Wits + Composure for your character to determine if she’s prepared for the worst. Even one success indicates that she is and you can roll Initiative for a fight as usual. If your Wits + Composure roll fails, your character is caught off guard and can do nothing for the first turn of combat except stand and gape or get hurt. Her Defense is not applied against incoming attacks in that first turn.
Dramatic Failure: Your character is completely blindsided. The Storyteller may decree that she cannot act and loses her Defense for the first two turns of any fight that ensues.
Failure: Your character notices nothing amiss and is caught off guard.
Success: Initiative may be rolled normally and your character can attack or defend herself without hindrance.
Exceptional Success: Your character spots trouble or simply senses imminent danger — and can announce it to any companions. None of her companions is caught off guard (all of their Wits + Composure rolls are considered successful).
Suggested Equipment: Hopped-up on caffeine (2), or methamphetamines (+3).
Possible Penalties: Dark (-3), obscuring weather (-1 to -3), distracting circumstances (-1 to -3), attacker at long range (-3), presumed safe environment (-1 to -2).
The focus and determination to see your character’s will done. The capacity to stay on target, ignore distractions, and to resist coercion or browbeating. Resolve is your character’s mental fortitude. His personal conviction. His clarity of vision or spirit. Your character may be easily distracted, unable to concentrate, resolute, or single-minded. The trait is pivotal to resisting supernatural forms of mental control; it acts as a veritable defense of the mind. (Note: Resolve is not to be confused with Willpower. Resolve is your character’s ongoing focus. Think of it as his long-term purpose, like a career plan. Willpower reflects your character’s short-term highs and lows, his ability to dedicate himself in brief efforts to overcome challenges. Resolve does contribute to your character’s Willpower dots, though).
Possessed by: Athletes, leaders, motivators, organizers, police, and soldiers.
Skill Specialty: Resisting Coercion
Dice Pool: Resolve + Wits OR Resolve + Stamina
Another person seeks to turn your character’s mind to her way of thinking, or tries to get him do something for her, possibly through debate, intimidation, or threats. The action is probably a contested effort against someone else’s Wits-, Intelligence-, Presence- or Manipulation-based roll. Whoever gets the most successes wins. Convincing evidence might impose a -1 to -3 penalty to your character’s determination. Especially pointed or compelling threats or applications of torture impose a similar penalty, at the Storyteller’s discretion. A prolonged interrogation or torture session may require extended rolls between parties, made every few minutes, hours or days, as appropriate. If successes rolled in a contested coercion attempt tie, the subject maintains his own will and does not break down.
Dramatic Failure: Why didn’t your character think of that? He is utterly forthcoming with help or information. In fact, there’s even more that he could do.
Failure: The request or idea seems perfectly reasonable.
Success: “No way.”
Exceptional Success: “No way, and here’s how you’re wrong,” or “All I know is (insert misinformation here).”
Suggested Equipment: “What Would Jesus Do?” key chain (2).
Possible Penalties: Questioned or smooth-talked by a friend (-1) or family member (-2), bribed (-1 to -3).
Skill Specialty: Standing Your Ground
Dice Pool: Resolve + Wits OR Resolve + Stamina
The world is full of people, things, and situations that exert their influence on children. Some are merely greedy or self-centered, others blatantly malevolent. Children in the World of Darkness are regularly challenged by those who would bend their will, from marketing executives on “children’s programming” shows to bullies on the school grounds to the unkempt man in the ice cream van who wants to give them a ride and a popsicle for “free.” Children themselves use some of these same tactics, against each other or those they interact with. When one person is attempting to coerce another into some course of action, the situation is a contested effort, with the target making a Resolve + Wits (for non-physical coercion) or Resolve + Stamina (for threats that include physical violence). Their total successes are compared to the bully’s appropriate roll (this might involve Wits for quick thinking, Strength for physical coercion, Presence for socially bowling them over, Manipulation for sneaky or deceptively convincing arguments). Whoever gets the most successes wins (with ties going to the target, rather than the bully).
Dramatic Failure: Your character is utterly convinced or cowed into agreement. In fact, he’s surprised he didn’t see it that way earlier. He will go out of his way to pursue and promote the idea to whatever extent he is able.
Failure: Your character is persuaded. He might not really want to do it, but he will. He’s still not completely sure why it makes sense, but it does."
Success: Your character holds his ground. He’s not backing down this time.
Exceptional Success: Your character not only is not convinced or intimidated, but he manages to turn the tables on the bully, who reacts as if he were the object of the intimidation and had rolled a failure.
Suggested Equipment: Target is not alone (1 to 4).
Possible Penalties: Bully’s forces outnumber targets (-1 to -3), bully has a position of authority (parent, teacher, etc.) (-2), bully is significantly bigger/older than target (-1 to -3), bully is known to resort to physical violence (-1), unfamiliar territory (-1), target and bully are opposite genders (-2), bully has a weapon (-1 to -3).
Physical might. Sheer bodily power. The capacity to lift objects, move items, hit things and people, and do damage. Strength is a measure of muscle. Your character could be 98-pound weakling, he could carry a spare tire, or he could be lean and cut or bulky and brawny. Your character’s Strength score is used in hand-to-hand combat. This trait is instrumental to laborers, thugs, athletes, brawlers’ and law-enforcement agents. Strength, along with Dexterity, is a factor in determining your character’s Speed. Strength is also added to Brawl or Weaponry attacks to determine the amount of harm your character inflicts in combat.
Possessed by: Athletes, brawlers, laborers, law-enforcement agents, and thugs.
Skill Specialty: Lifting / Moving Objects
Dice Pool: Strength (+ Stamina)
Lifting and moving objects involves brute force; might over matter. In some cases, however, Stamina plays a part. Power alone doesn’t have immediate effects, but power combined with the endurance to apply it does. All people can accomplish feats of strength in momentary efforts, depending on their muscle mass. Working together, people can combine their might to accomplish tasks. Add all participants’ Strength scores and refer to the Strength Feats Chart to gauge what can be moved just by spending an action (no Strength roll is necessary). To exceed this limit, a Strength + Stamina roll is required, with successes achieved added to your character’s Strength score to determine what kind of task he can accomplish in that action. In a group effort to move something really heavy, a Strength + Stamina roll is made for each supporting participant. Successes rolled are added to a primary actor’s roll as bonus dice. If your character’s modified Strength total exceeds that required to lift an object, it can be relocated as desired. If his Strength total matches that required to lift an object, it can be moved about a yard. The chart indicates how much a character can lift, but that amount represents a focused, one-time act. That weight isn’t what he can walk around holding and wearing, day to day. Your character can realistically carry/tote 25 pounds per dot of Strength without penalty. If he attempts to carry more, every action involving physical exertion incurs an automatic -1 penalty for every 25 pounds of excess gear that he has. Furthermore, every 25 pounds he piles on beyond what he can carry reduces his Speed by one. Perhaps he can actually with everything he’s wearing and holding, but he can’t go anywhere with it. The Storyteller makes the final call on what your character may realistically carry.
Dramatic Failure: The item is dropped and/or a level of bashing damage is incurred.
Failure: Nothing is added to Strength
Success: One or more is added to Strength.
Exceptional Success: Five or more is added to Strength and the character looks really impressive while performing his mighty feat.
Suggested Equipment: Convenient handholds 1).
Possible Penalties: Slippery conditions (-1), lack of handholds (-1), “It’s been a long day” (-1).
Quickness. Response time. A delicate touch. Dexterity indicates how quickly and with how much finesse your character responds to his physical world. While high Wits dots helps your character spot trouble, high Dexterity dots help him react to it, whether with a counteraction or to simply get the hell out of the way. Dexterity also helps with hand-eye coordination, be it to fire an accurate shot, to juggle objects or to perform delicate jobs such as handle explosives. Your character might be sluggish, clumsy, slight, quick, or nimble. Dexterity, along with Strength, is a factor in determining your character’s Speed. Dexterity is also combined with Composure to determine your character’s Initiative in a fight.
Sturdiness. Steadfastness. Sheer physical resilience. Stamina is a measure of how tough your character is. It indicates how far she can push her body, and how much physical abuse she can endure. Your character might be sickly and frail, or hardy and unstoppable. Stamina, along with Size, is a factor in determining your character’s Health dots.
Possessed by: Bouncers, brawlers, heavy lifters, survivalists, triathletes, and workaholics..
Skill Specialty: Holding Breath
Dice Pool: Stamina
A character can hold her breath for a number of turns based on her Stamina dots. See the Holding Breath chart for further specifics. When she has reached her normal limit, a Stamina roll is made to continue. Each success grants 30 extra seconds (or one extra turn per success in combat). When she can no longer hold her breath, she begins suffocating/drowning. She suffers one lethal Health wound per turn. (Werewolves and other living supernatural creatures cannot regenerate this damage until they can breathe again. Since vampires and the walking dead don’t breathe, they cannot suffocate or drown.)
Skill Specialty: Resisting Poison Or Disease
Dice Pool: Stamina + Resolve
Action: Reflexive (potentially extended)
Toxins or ailments affect people only in so far as these afflictions can overcome bodily resistance, and often the personal imperative to remain healthy. The human body can fight back against foreign substances and illness, but determination to resist goes a long way toward recovery, too. Mere exposure to an illness or poison might call for a reflexive Stamina + Resolve roll to determine if your character falls victim. If the roll is successful, he remains healthy or immune. If the roll fails, the symptoms kick in. If an affliction has long-term effects, efforts to fight back might call for extended and reflexive Stamina + Resolve rolls. They might be made every turn or hour for a poison, or every hour, day or week for a disease. The total number of successes needed to overcome might be 10 for a weak poison or 30 for a virulent disease. The victim suffers from any effects of the illness while it is being fought. The Storyteller might impose a limit on the number of rolls that can be made before a severe condition proves fatal. If required successes aren’t accumulated by then, your character dies.
Dramatic Failure: The toxin wins over all; your character’s will is shattered. Penalties or damage imposed by the condition become more severe, intensifying by one. All accumulated successes are lost and the Storyteller decides when — or if — your character ever recovers.
Failure: The intruding effect takes or continues to take its course.
Success: In a simple reflexive roll, the condition is resisted. In an extended roll, some progress is made in resisting the condition, but symptoms persist until the illness is defeated completely (when required successes are accumulated).
Exceptional Success: “Rumors of my death are exaggerated.” Your character goes immune or makes rapid progress toward recovery.
Suggested Equipment: Healthy diet (2), cutting-edge wonder drugs (+3).
Possible Penalties: Injuries (-1 to -3), bad diet (-1), lack of medication (-1 to -3), lack of sleep (-1 to -2).
Bearing. Stature. Assertiveness. Presence suggests the power of your character’s very identity. Attractiveness is only part of the trait. Your character may be jaw-dropping gorgeous, plain-Jane or downright ugly, but her Presence means much more. It reflects her sheer command over the attention of others. It’s her capacity to impose her will on others by being socially aggressive or powerful — a veritable bull in a china shop or someone who simply doesn’t accept no for an answer.Note that attractiveness alone is represented by the Striking Looks Merit, which grants bonus dice to Presence rolls.
Possessed by: Enforcers, interrogators, leaders, models, politicians, and salespeople.
Action: Charm. Persuasiveness. Charisma. The capacity to play upon the desires, hopes and needs of others to influence them. Manipulation reflects your character’s finesse in social situations. How well he can appeal to, gain the favor of and generally coerce others. Manipulation is applied to win smiles, to put people at ease or to gain favors. Where Presence deals in social force, Manipulation focuses on social subtlety. It’s the tool and trade of businesspeople, politicians, sales folk and publicists. Your character may be a wallflower, he could frequently make off-color statements, he might have a winning smile and a hardy handshake, or he may be able to sell sand in the desert.
Poise. Dignity. The capacity to remain calm and appear — and actually be — unfazed in social and threatening situations, usually harrowing ones. Your character might lose his temper at the slightest perceived insult, collapse emotionally under a mere pretense, weather a storm of verbal (or literal) slings and arrows, or have the nerve to look unspeakable horror in the eye. This trait is a measure of emotional fortitude, restraint and calm. Composure is vital to resisting social influence and pressure — overt, covert, or otherworldly. Composure is pivotal to resisting supernatural forms of emotional control; it acts as a veritable emotional defense. The trait is also vital to efforts among supernatural beings such as vampires and werewolves to restrain themselves when their blood is raised and frenzy threatens. Composure, along with Resolve, is a factor in determining your character’s Willpower. Composure is also added to Dexterity to determine your character’s Initiative at the beginning of a fight.
Possessed by: Leaders, moderators, soldiers, anyone whose movements are public consumption.
Skill Specialty: Meditation
Dice Pool: Composure + Wits + (equipment)
Action: Extended (4 successes; one roll represents 30 minutes)
Meditation is a means of relaxation and reflection that is useful to counterbalance daily stresses and to restore one’s emotional center. It helps to filter out extraneous influences and allows a person to re-dedicate herself to personal beliefs, values, and aspirations. For game purposes, this practice has a powerful effect on maintaining emotional balance and bolstering one’s moral resolve in the face of potential degeneration (the decline of one’s Morality). Performing a successful meditation session requires at least 30 minutes of uninterrupted time in which your character turns her attention inward and tunes out the world. Each roll represents one such 30-minute segment, and meditation sessions can potentially run for several hours as the practitioner struggles with life’s distractions and seeks her focus. Situational modifiers such as the character’s mental and physical condition and environmental distractions can apply. Four successes are required for a rewarding effort. If successful, your character gains a +1 bonus on her next degeneration roll. This bonus lasts until that degeneration roll is made or until the character sleeps, whichever comes first. Once she awakens, she has to meditate again in order to reclaim the bonus. Once the degeneration roll has been made, she can meditate again for a bonus on her next roll, even if she hasn’t slept yet.
Suggested Equipment: Yoga mat (1), meditative music or relaxation tapes (3).
Possible Penalties: Loud noises (-1), nearby children (-1), uncomfortable environment (-1), lack of sleep (-1 to -2), lack of food (-1 to -3).